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Emulation support is provided by the Config_EMULATE file in the config subdirectory of the jBASE release directory. All text in the file is case insensitive.

The format of that file is:

Denotes a comment and the line is ignored.
Denotes a label, signifying the start of an emulation definition.
Denotes an emulation definition.

Labels must be alpha-numeric, i.e. no periods, underlines, etc. If one label directly follows another then the label is synonym for the same emulation definition. The emulation definition ends when another label or the end of file encountered.

Multiple emulation definitions can be defined on the same line with each definition delimited by a comma or a semicolon. Emulation definitions can be interrupted by blank lines and can contain any amount of white space, i.e. one or more spaces or tab characters.

Emulation definitions can be declared 'on', 'yes' or 'true' to mean the emulation is enabled or similarly use the strings 'off', 'no' or 'false' to mean the emulation effect is disabled.

To use a different set of emulation definitions from the default set, set the environment variable JBCEMULATE in your current environment to the required emulation label. When the environment variable is not configured then the emulation definition defined by the default label is in effect. If the default label is not present then the first label detected will be used for the default emulation.

Generally any emulation definitions which affect BASIC, (like the @(-n) codes), use the JBCEMULATE environment variable when the programs are compiled, whereas the other definitions tend to be used at runtime, when the program is executed.

You can create your own custom emulation sections in the Config_EMULATE file but it is recommended to use Alternate Emulations for this purpose.

Alternate Emulations

An Alternate Emulation has the general form:


where name is the name of the emulation. These emulations are also stored in the config directory under $JBCRELEASEDIR. and follow the exact same rules. The file name of the alternate emulation must be the same as the label, i.e. the x: line.

Alternate Emulations can contain any combination of configuration options except dup entries. If you require the behavior of a dup entry then all configuration settings in that section must be explicitly added to the Alternate Emulation.

For example, to create an alternate jbase emulation called jcustom,which changes the value of the old_jql_output_style setting, would be:

File name: Config_EMULATE_jcustom

      @(-1) = clear_screen ; @(-2) = cursor_home ; @(-3) = clear_eos ; @(-4) = clear_eol   
      @(-5) = blink_on ; @(-6) = blink_off
      @(-7) = prot_on ; @(-8) = prot_off ;
      @(-9) = cursor_left ; @(-10) = cursor_up ; @(-20) = cursor_down ; @(-19) = cursor_right
      @(-13) = reverse_on ; @(-14) = reverse_off
      @(-15) = underline_on ; @(-16) = underline_off
      @(-17) = printer_on ; @(-18) = printer_off
      @(-33) = background white ; @(-34) = background yellow ; @(-35) = background magenta ; @(-36) = background red
      @(-37) = background cyan ; @(-38) = background green ; @(-39) = background blue ; @(-40) = background black
      @(-41) = foreground white ; @(-42) = foreground yellow ; @(-43) = foreground magenta ; @(-44) = foreground red
      @(-45) = foreground cyan ; @(-46) = foreground green ; @(-47) = foreground blue ; @(-48) = foreground black
      @(-57) = foreground white ; @(-58) = foreground yellow ; @(-59) = foreground magenta ; @(-60) = foreground red
      @(-61) = foreground cyan ; @(-62) = foreground green ; @(-63) = foreground blue ; @(-64) = foreground black
      @(-200) = cursor_on , @(-201) = cursor_off
      list_keys = true
      reality_video = true
      jbase_field = true
      named_common = null
      readv0 = key
      treat_with_as_or_with = true
      dates_upper_case = yes
      use_sql_syntax_for_select = false
      old_jql_output_style = true
      itype_trans_replace_delim = false
      itype_unquoted_numeric_literal = true
      enter_keeps_common_data = false
      error_numbers_are_single_attribute = false

To use this definition, set the JBCEMULATE environment variable to jcustom, e.g.

export JBCEMULATE=jcustom   [Linux]
set JBCEMULATE=jcustom      [Windows]

Note that you can't use the dup option with alternate emulations. In other words, you can't do something like this:

      dup = jbase
      old_jql_output_style = true

You must expand all of the entries explicitly.

Configuration Definitions

Set At:

allow_bad_day_of_month = true|false 

If set, allows invalid date conversions like 31 Sep to convert to valid dates (1st Oct).

Run Time

allow_unassigned_assignment = true|false

Suppress "UNASSIGNED VARIABLE" message where "X=Y" and Y has not been assigned.

Run Time

alternate_chain_exit = true|false    

If set then under certain circumstances drops an extra run level on returning from a CHAIN command. This is an emulation of jBASE 3.4 behaviour. Current behaviour is believed to be preferable. Only set this if necessary for backwards compatibility.

Run Time

alternative_oconv = true|false

If set then for the "DD" and "DM" output conversions, single digit results are prefixed by zero. Default for Sequoia.

Run Time

breakon_l_suppresses_blank_line = true|false

If set then "L" in a "BREAK-ON" clause means suppress the blank line before the data line. The default is to skip the break line, i.e. only output a blank line.

Run Time

byexp_mv_dup_like_d3 = true|false

If set, when using BY-EXP, reuse the first, and only, value in single valued attributes. The default behaviour, i.e. with "byexp_mv_dup_like_d3" unset or false, is to assume a null value for the 2nd and subsequent values. Currently, this option is not set under any emulation in the "Config_EMULATE" file supplied with the jBASE Installation.

Run Time

case_insensitive_file_ids = true|false

If set, try and ignore the case of file names, default behaviour will be to open the first UPPER CASE version of the file name.

Run Time

case_insensitive_md = true|false

If set, the MD does not care about case, everything should end up as UPCASE.

Run Time

case_insensitive_queries = true|false

If set, verbs used in jQL queries and dictionaries ignore case.

Run Time

case_insensitive_runtime_strings = true|false

If set, any jBASE functions which accept a VAR as a parameter will UPCASE it.

Run Time

compiler_case_insensitive_subroutines = true|false

If set, all SUBROUTINE names are case insensitive.

Compile Time

compiler_case_insensitive_variables_keywords = true|false

If set, the compiler ignores the case on variable names and keywords. [Not currently implemented]

Compile Time

chk_typeahead_on_inputminus = true|false

If set then check for typeahead when INPUT x,-1 syntax is used.

Run Time

conv_mct_uv_compat = true|false

Universe compatible capitalisation after non-alpha characters.

Run Time

conv_old_mct = true|false

Capitalise character following non-alpha character, e.g. "-" (hyphen).

Run Time

dates_upper_case = yes|no

If "yes" then date conversions (e.g. "DM" and "DW") force the text to uppercase format, e.g. "March" is forced to "MARCH". Without this option, the casing for dates is dependent upon the operating system.

Run Time

defer_header_output = true|false

Set by default under Ultimate emulation. Any Basic HEADER will be output at the next natural page break. Normally the HEADER is issued immediately. The output of the HEADER can also be deferred, to the next natural page break, by prefixing the HEADER data with an Attribute Mark (@AM).

Run Time

dict_sub_call = true|false

On some emulations, when calling a SUBROUTINE from a DICT item, a parameter will be passed to the SUBROUTINE which is the current item -- if this is the case, set this to "true".

Run Time

dot_not_numeric = true|false

Set to true for compatibility with systems that expect ".", "+" and "-" to be treated as non-numeric characters.

Run Time

dup = name

Duplicates the definition "name", where "name:" is a previously defined "label:", i.e. this "definition" inherits the behaviour defined for "name:", "option" settings following a "dup" override the inherited behaviour for that "option".


enter_keeps_common_data = true|false

Set if you want the ENTER statement to retain global common when "(I" option is used.

Run time

error_numbers_are_single_attribute = true|false

If set, check that the first value is a number, if so use it as the error message, (i.e., return 401 instead of 401]QLSELNO) (Could be problematic).

Run time

ext_pattern_match = true|false

For systems which use extended pattern matching.

Compile Time

format_defaults_no_decimals = true|false

If set, a format mask that does not specify decimal places will not output any decimals. Default is to output all decimal places.

Run time

generic_pick = true|false

The emulation will otherwise behave as if coming from a Pick environment.

Compile Time1

generic_prime = true|false

The emulation will otherwise behave as if coming from a Prime environment.

Compile Time1

generic_reality = true|false

The emulation will otherwise behave as if coming from a Reality Operating System environment.

Compile Time1

generic_universe = true|false

The emulation will otherwise behave as if coming from a Universe system.

Compile Time1


The emulation will otherwise behave as if coming from a Unidata environment.

Compile Time1

header_with_s = yes|no

For systems (Sequoia) S-types with null "header" WILL use the default column heading.

Run Time

hush_input_and_output = true|false

If set then control both input and output on HUSH.

Run Time1

iconv_nonnumeric_return_null = true|false

If true then ICONV will return null instead of the original value when that value is non-numeric and numeric is expected.

Run Time

insert_default_zero_to_one = true|false

If set, treat a param value of zero as one for INSERT function.

Run Time

invert_F_correl = yes|no

Set this for systems (Reality) where the F correlative operates on the top stack elements in the reverse order to that expected for certain operators

Run Time

itype_trans_replace_delim = true|false

Set to replace delimiters with spaces in the TRANS() function ( ITYPES only ).

Run Time

itype_unquoted_numeric_literal = true|false

Set for systems (Universe/Unidata ) where the 3rd and 4th parameters of the 'FIELD'' function can be specified as an unquoted numeric. The unquoted numeric will be treated as a numeric literal in these cases, rather than an attribute reference.

Run Time

jbase_field = yes|no

For systems (jBASE and Prime), FIELD function will use the entire delimiter not just the first character.

Run Time

jpqn_replace_semicolon = true|false

Set by default under Ultimate emulation. When moving data from the Input buffer to the Primary Output buffer using the A command in PQN Procs, any semicolons are replaced with specified delimiter, e.g. : A' changes abc;def;xyz to abc"def"xyz.

Run Time


For systems (as yet unknown) which assume unquoted numerics (inside substring extraction) should be treated as Numeric literals (NOT attribute references as expected by default).

Run Time


Set for systems (Reality, R83, Universe) where integer only arithmetic is performed in calculations within "A;" correlatives/conversions.

Run Time

jql_divide_by_zero_zero = true|false

For systems (R91), division by zero in conversions/correlatives will return zero. (The default behaviour is to return the numerator unchanged).

Run Time

jql_mv_subcall = true|false

For systems (Sequoia) the user subroutine will be called for each multivalue and subvalue in data being processed by jQL. Default is false

Run Time

length_field_formatting = true|false

For systems that preceed formatting with a length field.

Run Time

list_keys = yes|no

If set then commands such as T-DUMP , T-LOAD , COPY will by default display all the record keys and use the (I) option to suppress this. Without this option then by default the reverse is true e.g. T-DUMP will not list any record keys but the (I) option indicates that record keys should be displayed

Run Time2

locate_null_only_in_array = yes|no

Set for systems requiring null to only match within the real array, not the implied array, e.g. : FIND "" IN "abc" will return 'true' under the default mode.

Run Time

long_who = yes|no

If set, the WHO command is extended to give the node name and UNIX account name.

Run Time

log_runtime_errors = true|false

If true, runtime errors such as divide by zero are logged in the $JBCRELEASEDIR/runtime-errors directory, assuming the error message in $JBCRELEASEDIR/jbcmessages contains the string ^LOGERRORS^.

Run Time

make_locate_dr_like_dn = true|false

Set for systems requiring the DR of the LOCATE statement to act like DN.

Compile Time

match_last_delimiter = true|false

If set to 'true' then the last delimiter in pattern match string is used within the pattern to match, e.g.: "a]b]c]" will match "c]".

Run Time

matread_assigns_to_end = true | false

Additional attributes are appended to the last element of a DIMensioned array by 'MATREAD'. By default additional attributes are returned in element '0' of the DIMensioned array. Set 'true' under Sequoia emulation. [Runtime]

Run Time

md_int_only = true | false

If set, only integers will be allowed in MD or MR conversions. If a decimal number is used then it will be treated as non-numeric, returning the original value, e.g. OCONV(12.99,'MD2') returns '12.99' instead of '0.13' .

Run Time

multiple_cmd_execution = true | false

For systems that allow execution of multiple commands if provided as a dynamic array to 'PERFORM'/'EXECUTE' statements.

Run Time

named_common = unassigned|null|zero

Indicates how to set named common when first referenced. Default is unassigned.
'setting' can be :

a) "zero" to initialise to numeric 0.

b) "unassigned" to keep it as an unassigned variable.

c) "null" to create it as a zero length null string.

Run Time2

no_equate_on_call = true | false

If set, inhibit the Equate processing on the 'Subroutine' name specified in CALL statements but not CALL @ statements.

Run Time

no_extra_delimiter = true|false

For systems ( currently Sequoia and R83 ) which do not insert a delimiter (AM/VM/SVM) if the current string being appended to ( by specifying '-1' as the parameter to append/insert before ) has a 'trailing' delimiter (AM/VM/SVM ) already. This behaviour is true for all of :

dyn_array<-1> = whatever ,

x = INSERT( dyn_array,-1,.., ..; whatever ),


INS whatever BEFORE dyn_array<-1,..,...>

Compile Time

no_id_prompt = true|false

For systems (Sequoia) which do NOT 'prompt for ids' when using 'QSELECT' (for example) and no items are specified. If 'no_id_prompt' is set do NOT 'prompt' for the item ids but assume '*' (i.e. ALL items) are required.

Run Time

no_value_maths = true|false

If set to 'true' then jBASE will NOT perform automatic multi-value maths on a non-numeric string, e.g. : A = "12":@AM:"3" + 1 will fail with a 'NON_NUMERIC' error.

Run Time

nopage_null_header = true|false

For systems (as yet unknown) which do NOT expect a pause at the end of Page when a Null HEADING is requested in Basic. The default behaviour is to leave this 'flag' unset.

Run Time

null_eq_zero = true|false

For systems (Universe) right justified null fields will sort equal to zero.

Run Time

oconv_format_null = true|false

For systems whose OCONV functions force formatting of null values.

Run Time

oconv_no_mask_formatting = true|false

For systems that do not use OCONV mask formatting when value is null or nonnumeric.

Run Time

oconv_no_scale_formatting = true|false

For systems that do not using a scaling factor by default for OCONV formatting.

Compile Time

old_jql_output_style = true|false

If set then the number of spaces between columns, for the jQL LIST and SORT commands, is always 1.

If not set then jQL adjusts the spacing between columns depending on the number of columns and the width setting of the TERM command. The maximum number of spaces between columns is 4.

This option is only effective when the jQL display is in columnar format.

Run Time

openseq_creates = true|false

When set, the jBC OPENSEQ statement will create the specified file if it does not exist. This parameter is set by default for Sequoia.

Run Time

page_0_header = true|false

For systems (Sequoia) PAGE 0 will clear any existing HEADINGs and FOOTINGs.

Run Time

para_stacked_data = true|false

Set by default under Unidata emulation.
Externally stacked 'DATA', passed from a Basic program to an 'EXECUTE'd PAragraph, is only used to satisfy 'INPUT' requests within the PAragraph and is not passed indirectly to programs 'EXECUTE'd from the PAragraph, e.g. :

Program :

DATA 'input1'

EXECUTE 'Paragraph'

PAragraph :



C 'input1' will NOT be passed to the above 'SELECT' if 'para_stacked_data = true'


C 'GetInput' above will be satisfied by 'input1' if 'para_stacked_data = true'

Run Time

pq_Aquote_prepends_space = true|false

( Currently not enabled under any emulation by default).
This option can be enabled to assist in the construction of 'commands' within the Proc Output buffer.
Specifically for Proc's where a required trailing space has been omitted during creation of the Proc, e.g. :



HSELECT <--- The trailing 'space' has been omitted within the Proc





With this option enabled, the A' and/or A", will prepend a 'space' to the current contents of the Output buffer, where necessary, prior to appending the 'quoted' contents of the 'A' buffer, e.g. :

When this option is enabled the 'Output' buffer will contain :

SELECT 'input_data'

rather than:


Run Time

pq_backslash = true|false

If set, PQ procs will use backslash delimiters when extending past the end of input buffer with Sn or Rin. Default for Sequoia.

Run Time

pq_indirection = true|false

If set then PQ procs can execute PQN proc commands (Universe).

Run Time

prime_runtime_errors = true|false

'ZERO_USED' , 'DIVIDE_ZERO' and 'NON_NUMERIC' errors generate message ids appended with '_PRIME', eg 'ZERO_USED_PRIME' , 'DIVIDE_ZERO_PRIME' and 'NON_NUMERIC_PRIME' etc.

Run Time

print_initial_formfeed = true|false

Set by default under Ultimate emulation.
Under normal circumstances the leading form feed, from a HEADER, is suppressed in PRINTed output.
This emulation mode causes such form feeds to be PRINTed at the start of the PRINT jobs.

Run Time

prt_video = true|false

Support the following extensions, mainly for printer definitions : @(-27) to @(-33) , @(-47) to @(-55) and @(-59) to @(-126) , and @(-220) through @(-239).

Run Time

quit_eq_end = true|false

Quit (or Stop) from the debugger has the same effect as End or Abort, meaning any calling proc or paragraph is terminated.

Run Time

read_reset_as_null = true|false

For systems which, when a read fails, reset the read variable to a null string.

Run Time

readnext_dont_null_last_key_on_eof = true|false

If set, then retain the value of the last key on a READNEXT instead of setting it to NULL when EOF is reached.

Run Time

readv0 = binary|dcount|key

When a READV (or READVU) is performed and attribute 0 is specified, this defines what to return:


return '1' if the record exits ( '0' otherwise ).


return the number of attributes in the record, if the record exists.


return the record key.

Run Time

reality_video = true|false

Support the Reality video extensions from @(-128) through @(-191) for video effects such as combinations of reverse, underline, flashing and so on. These can usually be added to all emulations without harmful effects.

Run Time

reformat_append = true|false

By default the REFORMAT command overwrites existing attributes. With this set, then the REFORMAT command will append a multi-value to existing attributes.

Run Time

report_bad_tapeblksz = true|false

Attempting to write a 'NULL' tape block or a block which is larger than the attached tape block size will return the appropiate error code in SYSTEM(0).
This option is NOT set by default for any emulation.

Run Time

resize_array = true|false

If true then the re-DIMensioning of arrays is permitted. Set to 'true' under 'Universe', 'Prime', 'Unidata' and 'Ultimate' emulations.

Compile Time

returning_am_delimited = true|false

If set then data returned from the RETURNING/SETTING clause of the EXECUTE statement will be attribute mark delimited. Otherwise the data will be value mark delimited.
The default is true for Sequoia, otherwise false.

Run Time

round_neg_tozero = true|false

Round -0.5 to 0 instead of to -1. This does not affect 0.5.

Run Time

scale_masked_string = true|false

For systems (Reality) where formatted strings are descaled by the specified scaling factor, e.g.:

'123456' 'R26' gives :

with 'scale_masked' set : '0.12'

with 'scale_masked' unset : '1234.56'.

Compile Time

selected_count_not_binary = true|false

SYSTEM(11), which returns the status of the default select list will, by default, return 1 if a default select list is present, or 0 if no default select list is present. If this option is set, 'SYSTEM(11)' returns the number of items in the default select list.

Run Time

single_space_timedate = true|false

The TIMEDATE() function uses a single space separator (default is two spaces).

Run Time

skip_pib_on_ip_null = true|false

If set, leave PIB unchanged when null entered at IP command in PQ proc.

Run Time

skip_spaces_and_tabs = true|false

For systems which ignore leading and trailing spaces when handling values for maths.

Run Time

sline_with_heading = true|false

For systems (Prime), specifying a heading in jQL will NOT suppress the "n Records listed." messages.

Run Time

sp_assign_all =

For systems (Reality), where SP-ASSIGN without a 'channel' number will assign the specified form to ALL 'channels'. By default SP-ASSIGN without a specified 'channel' number only assigns to 'channel 0 (zero).

Run Time

spooler4_only_recent_jobs = true|false

Set by default under Reality emulation.
Under normal cicumstances ALL print jobs for the specified port will be returned by the SPOOLER(4) function. This emulation limits the information returned to those Print jobs created by the specified/current port, since the program issuing the SPOOLER(4) was started.

Run Time

stacked_input_global = true|false

Set if the DATA stack operates globally or traditionally i.e. : determines whether 'unused' stacked DATA is still available on return from 'EXECUTE'.

Run Time

substring_zero_eq_one = true|false

For systems (Reality) which treat a starting position of '0' as '1' in substring assignment, e.g. : x[0,1] = bla is equivalent to x[1,1] = bla.
The default behaviour, for 'x[0,n] = value' is to prepend to the original string. With 'substring_zero_eq_one' set, the first 'n' character(s) are replaced, e.g. : where 'x' is originally 'abc', x[0,1] = 'z' will give : 'zbc' with 'substring_zero_eq_one' set and 'zabc' by default.

Run Time

system_19_timedate = true|false

SYSTEM(19) will return a unique 'date + time' stamp, e.g. '1103361234' when compiled under this emulation, (rather than the 'account name'). (Sequoia emulation).

Run Time

tconv_no_replace = true|false

By default the T conversion in OCONV will replace system delimiters. This causes that effect not to happen.

Run Time

time_is_hours = true|false

For systems (Reality and Sequoia) ICONV(1,"MTS") will return 3600 (not 60).

Run Time

treat_with_as_and_with = true|false

If set treat jQL WITH <Clause> WITH <Clause> as AND WITH - default is OR WITH.

Run Time

treat_with_as_or_with = true|false

If set treat jQL WITH <Clause> WITH <Clause> as OR WITH - [ this is the default behaviour].

Run Time

unnamed_common = unassigned|null|zero

Indicates how to set un-named common when first referenced. Same as 'named_common'.

Run Time

use_id_lptr_reporting = true|false

For systems (Prime) that use @ID and @LPTR for default listings.

Run Time

use_sql_syntax_for_select = true|false

Use SQL syntax in SELECT commands.

Run Time

use_uv_locate = true|false

When set to 'true', use the Universe syntax for the Basic 'LOCATE' function, i.e. 'search string' and 'array to search' parameters are interposed.

Compile Time

ux1ad_use_four_digits = true|false

If set, user exits U11AD, U21AD and U31AD will generate four digit rather than two digit numbers. i.e. nnnnP vs nnP

Run Time

wrap_r_just = true|false

For systems (Universe and Prime), right justified data will wrap in jQL.

Run Time

writelist_on_select_from_var = true|false

If set then write any select list, generated by basic "SELECT Var" to the default select list.

Run Time


some of the "generic" emulation behavior will change at run-time, but for a complete change, the code should be recompiled. 

Despite being set at Run-time, if running from jshell, requires that a new jshell be invoked before the behavior will change.

On many platforms, @(-n) codes are used to control special terminal characteristics. However the definition of these codes differs between platforms. Rather than "hard coding" the @(-n) codes, jBASE allows their definition in the Config_EMULATE file. This allows legacy applications to use existing @(-n) codes and so reduces the time required to port an application to jBASE. A knowledge of terminfo capabilities can be useful when defining these codes.




Move cursor to position 0,0 and clear to end of screen



Move cursor to position 0,0



Clear the screen from current position to end of screen



Clear the screen from current position to end of line



Turn on blinking video



Turn off blinking video



Turn on protected fields



Turn off protected fields



Turn on reverse video



Turn off reverse video



Turn on underline video



Turn off underline video



Turn on bold video



Turn off bold video



Turn on the slave printer



Turn off the slave printer



Dump the entire screen to the printer



Turn the line 25 status line on



Turn the line 25 status line off



Move the cursor down one position



Move the cursor up one position



Move the cursor one position to the right



Move the cursor one position to the left



Turn the visible cursor on



Turn the visible cursor off



Delete a single line



Insert a single line



Scroll the screen display up one line



Scroll the screen display down one line



Delete a single character at present cursor position



Insert a blank character at present cursor position



Begin insert mode



End insert mode



Turns off ALL the video effects



Turn on the alternate character set



Turn off the alternate character set



In graphics mode a vertical bar



In graphics mode a horizontal bar



In graphics mode a top left hand corner



In graphics mode a top right hand corner



In graphics mode a bottom left hand corner



In graphics mode a bottom right hand corner



In graphics mode + intersection character



In graphics mode a left hand tee character



In graphics mode a right hand tee character



In graphics mode a top tee character



In graphics mode a bottom tee character


background colorname

Set the background to one of the supported colors , where "colorname" is one of: black , blue , green , cyan, red , magenta , yellow , white


foreground colorname

Set the foreground to one of the supported colors , where "colorname" is one of: black , blue , green, cyan , red , magenta , yellow , white

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